Water in Electric Field: Violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
(trop ancien pour répondre)
Pentcho Valev
2018-07-14 07:41:14 UTC
The second law of thermodynamics is OBVIOUSLY false. See turbulent motion of water in an electric field:

The motion is powered by:

(A) electric energy?

(B) ambient heat?

If (B) is the answer (it is!), the second law is violated - the work the motion is able to do (e.g. by rotating a waterwheel) will be done at the expense of heat absorbed from the surroundings.

Pentcho Valev
Pentcho Valev
2018-07-15 14:31:51 UTC
Nature 2002: "Researchers have shown for the first time that, on the level of thousands of atoms and molecules, fleeting energy increases violate the second law of thermodynamics. [...] Denis J. Evans and colleagues [...] measured water molecules' influence the motion of tiny latex beads held between lasers. They found that over periods of time less than two seconds, variations in the random thermal motion of water molecules occasionally gave individual beads a kick. This increased the beads' kinetic energy by a small but significant amount, in apparent violation of the second law." http://www.nature.com/news/2002/020722/full/news020722-2.html

A kick involving "thousands of atoms and molecules" suggests the presence of a factor somehow organizing water and prompting it to behave in this way. This factor is the electrical field created by the laser beam:

"A deviation from the second law of thermodynamics has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time. [...] ...the electric field in the laser beam." http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2002/jul/16/small-systems-defy-second-law

In an electric field, water undergoes turbulent motion powered by ambient heat. This obvious violation of the second law of thermodynamics is unacceptable to scientists so they prefer to remain silent or refer to the liberation of some mysterious "stored energy":

"What we had missed was that, in liquids there exists an intrinsic disequilibrium which continuously drives the system around within a big basin of possible configurations; and water is again exceptional. When we apply the electric field, we perturb the dynamics and change the shape of the attractor basin. This in turn changes the flow of energy through the system and may even liberate stored energy that is inaccessible when the liquid is in the ground state." https://www.wetsus.nl/home/wetsus-news/more-than-just-a-party-trick-the-floating-water-bridge-holds-insight-into-nature-and-human-innovation/1

Pentcho Valev