How Water Violates the Second Law of Thermodynamics
(trop ancien pour répondre)
Pentcho Valev
2018-04-03 09:16:04 UTC
Turbulent motion of water in an electric field:

The motion is powered by:

(A) electric energy?

(B) ambient heat?

If (B) is the answer (it is!), the second law of thermodynamics is violated - the work the motion is obviously able to do (e.g. by rotating a waterwheel) will be done at the expense of heat absorbed from the surroundings.
Pentcho Valev
2018-04-04 08:16:05 UTC
The laser beam creates an electric field and the second law of thermodynamics is immediately violated:

"A deviation from the second law of thermodynamics has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time. [...] To test the idea, the researchers put about 100 latex beads - each 6.3 µm across - into a WATER-FILLED CELL, which was placed on the stage of a microscope. The researchers focused a laser onto one of the beads, which induced a dipole moment in the bead and drew it towards the most intense region of the ELECTRIC FIELD in the laser beam." http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2002/jul/16/small-systems-defy-second-law

Nature: "Second law broken. Researchers have shown for the first time that, on the level of thousands of atoms and molecules, fleeting energy increases violate the second law of thermodynamics. [...] They found that over periods of time less than two seconds, variations in the random thermal motion of water molecules occasionally gave individual beads a kick. This increased the beads' kinetic energy by a small but significant amount, in apparent violation of the second law." http://www.nature.com/news/2002/020722/full/news020722-2.html

Scientific American: "Second Law of Thermodynamics Violated. [...] ...the water molecules interacted with the bead in such a way that energy was transferred from the liquid to the bead. These additional kicks used the random thermal motion of the water to do the work of moving the bead, in effect yielding something for nothing. For periods of movement lasting less than two seconds, the bead was almost as likely to gain energy from the water as it was to add energy to the reservoir, the investigators say." https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/second-law-of-thermodynam/

Pentcho Valev